Borrowing Definition in Linguistics
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Borrowing Definition in Linguistics

A large percentage of the lexicon of Romance languages, which itself derives from Vulgar Latin, consists of loanwords (later taught or scientific borrowings) from Latin. These words can be distinguished by the absence of typical phonetic changes and other transformations in descending words, or by meanings that come directly from classical or ecclesiastical Latin and have not evolved or changed over time as expected; In addition, there are also half-learned terms, some of which have been adapted to the character of the Romance language. Latin borrowings can be known by several names in Romance languages: in Spanish, for example, they are generally called “cultismos”[19][20] and in Italian “latinismi”. The term borrowing can be explained as the process of adopting words from a source language. Borrowing is therefore the result of cultural contact between two different language groups. To illustrate, when German tribes became familiar with Latin culture, they adopted many words from the Latin language. The type of loan is explained by many factors that affect the secondary and upper language. The above examples suggest the conclusion that in the case of lexical borrowing, the sublanguage borrows a word with the semantic connotation that is missing in this language from the higher language, where people have already been confronted with certain phenomena and have found the term lexical for it. Borrowing sentences with several words, such as the English use of the French term déjà vu, are called adoptions, adaptations or lexical borrowings. [5] [6] For most Romance languages, these borrowings were initiated by scholars, clergy or other scholars and occurred in the Middle Ages, where they reached their peak in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance[22] – in Italian, the 14th century had the highest number of loans. [Citation needed] In the case of Romanian, the language underwent a “process of re-Latinization” in the 18th and 19th centuries (see Romanian lexicon, Romanian language § French, Italian and English loanwords), with some French and Italian words (many of which were themselves borrowings prior to Latin) being used as mediators,[25] with the aim of modernizing the language. Often, concepts that did not exist before are added, or words from other origins are replaced.

These borrowings and common characteristics also essentially serve to increase the mutual comprehensibility of Romance languages, especially in the academic/scientific, literary, technical and scientific fields. Many of these words are also found in English (thanks to its many borrowings from Latin and French) and other European languages. But it becomes even more grammatical. According to Haugen (1950), there are five different types of lexical borrowings: the most common types of language borrowings distinguished by linguists are phonological, lexical, and layered (List 141). The example of phonological borrowings is [x]: yecch and [Z]: prestige (list 142). Examples of lexical loanwords are the following words from the French and Spanish ballet, captain, chivalry, fiancé, mud brick, cigar, mosquito and rodeo (list 143). Examples of layers that come from French and Canton Pidgin English are Look-See, No-Go, Long Time No See, No Can Do and Chop-Chop (List 143). On the basis of a distinction between imports and substitutions, Haugen (1950: 214f.) distinguishes three groups of basic loans: “(1) Loanwords show morphemic imports without substitution. (2) Borrowings show both morphemic substitution and importation. (3) Loanshifts show morphemic substitution without import.” Haugen later (1956) refined his model in a review of Gneuss` book (1955) on old English borrowed coins, whose classification is again that of Betz (1949). In the early days of modern English, the greatest expansion of vocabulary took place through processes of word formation and borrowing: mainly Latin (perfect, logical) and French (elegant, decision), but also other languages such as Greek (theology, trilogy), Italian (opera, balcony), Spanish and Portuguese (alcohol, alligator). Another example is the derived mixture, which consists of an imported tribe and an indigenous affix such as artillery (Winford 45).

The composite mixture is another illustration of the linguistic phenomenon of type 1 linguistic borrowing. This mix involves the creation of new loanwords with the use of imported roots and native stems. The case of the compound mixture is plum, where the reader may notice two stalks of plum and cake (Winford 45). Language borrowings may differ in kind and degree from minor to more structural types and from occasional language borrowings to severe language borrowings (Winford 12). Commenting on the types of linguistic borrowing, Winford noted that “situations with primary lexical borrowing, i.e. the borrowing of content morphemes such as nouns, verbs, etc., are extremely common, and most, if not all, languages have been exposed to this type of influence at some point” (12). Latin is generally the most common source of loanwords in these languages, such as Italian, Spanish, French, etc.[21][22] and in some cases, the total number of loans may even exceed the number of inherited terms[23][24] (although the borrows learned are less commonly used in the general language, the most common vocabulary being inherited, oral origin of Vulgar Latin). This has led to many cases of etymological duplicates in these languages. The ethnic group that borrows linguistic material from another language group may be motivated by a variety of factors such as economic, political, social and cultural factors. Overall, the motivation behind borrowing is a certain type of benefit that would become possible with the use of new language materials.

When it comes to forward-looking values, borrowers adopt new linguistic materials from the generic language. The main types of loans are lexical borrowing, credit transfers and loan conversions. Evaluating cultural and historical examples of language changes suggests an important conclusion. When two languages come into contact with each other, certain situations of linguistic change may arise, such as language borrowing. In this essay, the borrowing of languages is discussed. The type 1 language loan is the lexical loan. In this case, the new language takes up the borrowed words or borrowed mixtures. The example of this phenomenon in the English language is the reference to French, such as Rendezvous (Winford 45). Another example of loanwords is the Dutch corner (Winford 45).

Another example is that of credit mixes that come from Pennsylvania German, such as Basic (Winford 45). Type 2 language borrowing is borrowing, which is used in the new language as a result of credit carry-overs. To illustrate, a semantic extension from Portuguese to English means frio for cold infection (Winford 45). This word is formed under the influence of the model of use of the mother tongue. Another illustration is the case of phonological similarity, which is the basis of the change in semantics in an English word such as humorous parallel to the Portuguese word humoroso (Winford 45). Another example is the switch of the Norwegian language from the word wervelwind to the English word whirlwind (Winford 46). Other examples are French Art Deco or Art Style and Rotonde or Rotonde (Kemmer para. 17). Type 3 language borrowing is that of loan translations. This is where the phenomenon of direct translation borrowing occurs (Winford 44). An illustration of such a phenomenon is the creation of a German word with the lexical meaning “skyscraper” by the literary translation of morphemic parts of this word from English to German (Winford 44). As a result, the German language took over the translation of English-speaking nations, which were once familiar with the concept of skyscrapers due to the emergence of this technological breakthrough on their territory (Sapir 163).

Today`s English is also an important language for donors – the main source of borrowings for many other languages. Further examination of these changes and the historical context in which they were used can be seen what cultural, political, social or other factors influenced these changes (Kemmer para. 5). Overall, credit changes take place in languages if the borrower is not willing to fully accept the donor`s lexical material, but attempts to adapt the new loan to the particularities of his or her own language (Kemmer para. 5). Finally, it should be noted that the evidence shows that when two languages come into contact with each other, situations of language change occur, including lexical and phonetic borrowings. Linguistic contact takes place in situations where groups of speakers of different languages interact, such as colonization, migration, trade or occupation of new lands inhabited by other nations. As a result of linguistic contact, speakers of one language adopt the words of speakers of another language called the source language.

These words are referred to by linguists as borrowed or borrowed words (Kemmer para. 1). In linguistics, borrowing (also known as lexical borrowing) is the process by which a word from one language is adapted for use in another language. The borrowed word is called a loan word, a loan word, or a loanword. Linguistic borrowing occurs when different ethnic groups come into contact with different languages for social, political, economic or cultural reasons (Sapir 15). For example, when a particular ethnic minority lives in the region dominated by the host society, linguistic assimilation or, as linguists often call it, a change of language takes place (Sapir 157). The change of language in such a case is conditioned by pragmatic considerations such as the need to acquire a job, receive an education or engage in a business (Sapir 157). In addition to Latin borrowings, many words of ancient Greek origin were also borrowed from the Romance languages, often partly through scientific Latin intermediaries, and these also often concerned academic, scientific, literary and technical subjects.

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